
Abbas, G., Abyaneh, M. Z., Biswas, A., Gupta, S., Patra, M., Rajasekaran, G., et al. (2016). High scale mixing relations as a natural explanation for large neutrino mixing. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 31(17), 1650095–47pp.
Abstract: The origin of small mixing among the quarks and a large mixing among the neutrinos has been an open question in particle physics. In order to answer this question, we postulate general relations among the quarks and the leptonic mixing angles at a high scale, which could be the scale of Grand Unified Theories. The central idea of these relations is that the quark and the leptonic mixing angles can be unified at some high scale either due to some quark lepton symmetry or some other underlying mechanism and as a consequence, the mixing angles of the leptonic sector are proportional to that of the quark sector. We investigate the phenomenology of the possible relations where the leptonic mixing angles are proportional to the quark mixing angles at the unification scale by taking into account the latest experimental constraints from the neutrino sector. These relations are able to explain the pattern of leptonic mixing at the low scale and thereby hint that these relations could be possible signatures of a quark lepton symmetry or some other underlying quark lepton mixing unification mechanism at some high scale linked to Grand Unified Theories.



Araujo Filho, A. A., Hassanabadi, H., Reis, J. A. A. S., & LisboaSantos, L. (2024). Fermions with electric dipole moment in curved spacetime. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 39(19n20), 2450078–16pp.
Abstract: This paper explores the relativistic behavior of spinhalf particles possessing an Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) in a curved spacetime background induced by a spiral dislocation. A thorough review of the mathematical formulation of the Dirac spinor in the framework of quantum field theory sets the foundation for our investigation. By deriving the action that governs the interaction between the spinor field, the background spacetime, and an external electric field, we establish a framework to study the dynamics of the system. Solving the resulting wave equation reveals a set of coupled equations for the radial components of the Dirac spinor, which give rise to a modified energy spectrum attributed to the EDM. To validate our findings, we apply them to the geometric phase and thermodynamics.



Baker, M. J., Bordes, J., HongMo, C., & Tsun, T. S. (2013). A comprehensive mechanism reproducing the mass and mixing parameters of quarks and leptons. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 28(16), 1350070–29pp.
Abstract: It is shown that if, from the starting point of a universal rankone mass matrix long favored by phenomenologists, one adds the assumption that it rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale, one can reproduce, in terms of only six real parameters, all the 16 mass ratios and mixing parameters of quarks and leptons. Of these 16 quantities so reproduced, 10 for which data exist for direct comparison (i.e. the CKM elements including the CPviolating phase, the angles theta(12), theta(13), theta(23) in nuoscillation, and the masses m(c), m(mu), m(e)) agree well with experiment, mostly to within experimental errors; four others (m(s), m(u), m(d), m(nu 2)), the experimental values for which can only be inferred, agree reasonably well; while two others (m(nu 1), delta(CP) for leptons), not yet measured experimentally, remain as predictions. In addition, one gets as bonuses, estimates for (i) the righthanded neutrino mass m(nu R) and (ii) the strong CP angle theta inherent in QCD. One notes in particular that the output value for sin(2) 2 theta(13) from the fit agrees very well with recent experiments. By inputting the current experimental value with its error, one obtains further from the fit two new testable constraints: (i) that theta(23) must depart from its “maximal” value: sin(2) 2 theta(23) similar to 0.935 +/ 0.021, (ii) that the CPviolating (Dirac) phase in the PMNS would be smaller than in the CKM matrix: of order only vertical bar sin delta(CP)vertical bar <= 0.31 if not vanishing altogether.



Baker, M. J., Bordes, J., HongMo, C., & Tsun, T. S. (2012). Developing the Framed Standard Model. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 27(17), 1250087–45pp.
Abstract: The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and three fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory (FGT) structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global su(3) symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is “universal,” rankone and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale mu, (iii) the metric in generation space is scaledependent too, and in general nonflat, (iv) the thetaangle term in the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) action of topological origin gets transformed into the CPviolating phase of the CabibboKobayashiMaskawa (CKM) matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.



Baker, M. J., Bordes, J., HongMo, C., & Tsun, T. S. (2011). Mass Hierarchy, Mixing, CPViolation And Higgs Decay – Or Why Rotation Is Good For Us. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 26(13), 2087–2124.
Abstract: The idea of a rankone rotating mass matrix (R2M2) is reviewed detailing how it leads to ready explanations both for the fermion mass hierarchy and for the distinctive mixing patterns between up and down fermion states, which can be and have been tested against experiment and shown to be fully consistent with existing data. Further, R2M2 is seen to offer, as byproducts: (i) a new solution to the strong CP problem in QCD by linking the thetaangle there to the KobayashiMaskawa CPviolating phase in the CKM matrix, and (ii) some novel predictions of possible anomalies in Higgs decay observable in principle at the LHC. A special effort is made to answer some questions raised.



Bordes, J., Chan, H. M., & Tsou, S. T. (2023). A vacuum transition in the FSM with a possible new take on the horizon problem in cosmology. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 38(25), 2350124–32pp.
Abstract: The framed standard model (FSM), constructed to explain the empirical mass and mixing patterns (including CP phases) of quarks and leptons, in which it has done quite well, gives otherwise the same result as the standard model (SM) in almost all areas in particle physics where the SM has been successfully applied, except for a few specified deviations such as the W mass and the g2 of muons, that is, just where experiment is showing departures from what SM predicts. It predicts further the existence of a hidden sector of particles some of which may function as dark matter. In this paper, we first note that the above results involve, surprisingly, the FSM undergoing a vacuum transition (VTR1) at a scale of around 17MeV, where the vacuum expectation values of the colour framons (framed vectors promoted into fields) which are all nonzero above that scale acquire some vanishing components below it. This implies that the metric pertaining to these vanishing components would vanish also. Important consequences should then ensue, but these occur mostly in the unknown hidden sector where empirical confirmation is hard at present to come by, but they give small reflections in the standard sector, some of which may have already been seen. However, one notes that if, going off at a tangent, one imagines colour to be embedded, KaluzaKlein (KK) fashion, into a higherdimensional spacetime, then this VTR1 would cause 2 of the compactified dimensions to collapse. This might mean then that when the universe cooled to the corresponding temperature of 1011 K when it was about 103 s old, this VTR1 collapse would cause the three spatial dimensions of the universe to expand to compensate. The resultant expansion is estimated, using FSM parameters previously determined from particle physics, to be capable, when extrapolated backwards in time, of bringing the present universe back inside the then horizon, solving thus formally the horizon problem. Besides, VTR1 being a global phenomenon in the FSM, it would switch on and off automatically and simultaneously over all space, thus requiring seemingly no additional strategy for a graceful exit. However, this scenario has not been checked for consistency with other properties of the universe and is to be taken thus not as a candidate solution of the horizon problem but only as an observation from particle physics which might be of interest to cosmologists and experts in the early universe. For particle physicists also, it might serve as an indicator for how relevant this VTR1 can be, even if the KK assumption is not made.



Bordes, J., Chan, H. M., & Tsou, S. T. (2023). Search for new physics in semileptonic decays of K and B as implied by the g2 anomaly in FSM. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 38, 2350177–24pp.
Abstract: The framed standard model (FSM), constructed to explain, with some success, why there should be three and apparently only three generations of quarks and leptons in nature falling into a hierarchical mass and mixing pattern,(10) suggests also, among other things, a scalar boson U, with mass around 17 MeV and small couplings to quarks and leptons,(11) which might explain(9) the g – 2 anomaly reported in experiment.(12) The U arises in FSM initially as a state in the predicted “hidden sector” with mass around 17 MeV, which mixes with the standard model (SM) Higgs h(W), acquiring thereby a coupling to quarks and leptons and a mass just below 17 MeV. The initial purpose of this paper is to check whether this proposal is compatible with experiment on semileptonic decays of Ks and Bs where the U can also appear. The answer to this we find is affirmative, in that the contribution of U to new physics as calculated in the FSM remains within the experimental bounds, but only if m(U) lies within a narrow range just below the unmixed mass. As a result from this, one has an estimate m(U) similar to 1517 MeV for the mass of U, and from some further considerations the estimate Gamma(U) similar to 0.02 eV for its width, both of which may be useful for an eventual search for it in experiment. If found, it will be, for the FSM, not just the discovery of a predicted new particle, but the opening of a window into a whole “hidden sector” containing at least some, perhaps even the bulk, of the dark matter in the universe.



Bordes, J., Chan, H. M., & Tsou, S. T. (2021). delta(CP) for leptons and a new take on CP physics with the FSM. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 36, 2150236–22pp.
Abstract: A bonus of the framed Standard Model (FSM), constructed initially to explain the mass and mixing patterns of quarks and leptons, is a solution (without axions) of the strong CP problem by cancelling the thetaangle term theta(I) Tr(Hmu v Hmu v*) in coloura by a chiral transformation on a quark zero mode which is inherent in FSM, and produces thereby a CPviolating phase in the CKM matrix similar in size to what is observed.' Extending here to flavour, one finds that there are two terms proportional to Tr(G(mu v) G(mu v)*): (a) in the action from flavour instantons with unknown coefficient, say theta(I)', (b) induced by the above FSM solution to the strong CPproblem with therefore known coefficient theta(C)'. Both terms can be cancelled in the FSM by a chiral transformation on the lepton zero mode to give a Jarlskog invariant J' in the PMNS matrix for leptons of order 10(2), as is hinted by the experiment. But if, as suggested in Ref. 2, the term theta(I)' is to be cancelled by a chiral transformation in the predicted hidden sector to solve the strong CP problem therein, leaving only the term theta(C)' to be cancelled by the chiral transformation on leptons, then the following prediction results: J' similar to 0.012 (delta(CP)'similar to (1.11)pi) which is (i) of the right order, (ii) of the right sign and (iii) in the range favoured by the present experiment. Together with the earlier result for quarks, this offers an attractive unified treatment of all known CP physics.



Bordes, J., Chan, H. M., & Tsou, S. T. (2021). Unified FSM treatment of CP physics extended to hidden sector giving (i) delta(CP) for leptons as prediction, (ii) new hints on the material content of the universe. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 36, 2150238–19pp.
Abstract: A unified treatment of CP physics for quarks and leptons in the framed Standard Model (FSM) is extended to include the predicted hidden sector giving as consequences: (i) that an earlier part estimate of the Jarlskog invariant J' for leptons is turned into a prediction for its actual value, i.e. J' similar to 0.012 (delta(CP)' similar to 1.11 pi), which is of the right order of magnitude, of the right sign, and in the range of values favoured by the present experiment, (ii) some novel twists to the effects of CPviolation on the material content of the universe.



Bordes, J., Chan, H. M., & Tsun, S. S. (2018). A closer study of the framed standard model yielding testable new physics plus a hidden sector with dark matter candidates. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, 33(33), 1850195–75pp.
Abstract: This closer study of the FSM (1) retains the earlier results of Ref. 1 in offering explanation for the existence of three fermion generations, as well as the hierarchical mass and mixing patterns of leptons and quarks; (II) predicts a vector boson G with mass of order TeV which mixes gamma with and Z of the standard model. The subsequent deviations from the standard mixing scheme are calculable in terms of the G mass. While these deviations for (i) mz – mw, (ii) Gamma(Z > l (+)l( )), and (iii) F(Z > hadrons) are all within present experimental errors so long as mG > 1 TeV, they should soon be detectable if the G mass is not too much bigger; (III) suggests that in parallel to the standard sector familiar to us, there is another where the roles of flavour and colour are interchanged. Though quite as copiously populated and as vibrant in selfinteractions as our own, it communicates but little with the standard sector except via mixing through a couple of known portals, one of which is the gamma – Z – G complex noted in (II), and the other is a scalar complex which includes the standard model Higgs. As a result, the new sectors paper. appears hidden to us as we appear hidden to them, and so its lowest members with masses of order 10 MeV, being electrically neutral and seemingly stable, but abundant, may make eligible candidates as constituents of dark matter. A more detailed summary of these results together with some remarks on the model's special theoretical features can be found in the last section of this paper.

