
Alicki, R., Barenboim, G., & Jenkins, A. (2023). Quantum thermodynamics of de Sitter space. Phys. Rev. D, 108(12), 123530–13pp.
Abstract: We consider the local physics of an open quantum system embedded in an expanding threedimensional space x, evolving in cosmological time t, weakly coupled to a massless quantum field. We derive the corresponding Markovian master equation for the system's nonunitary evolution and show that, for a de Sitter space with Hubble parameter h 1/4 const, the background fields act as a physical heat bath with temperature TdS 1/4 h/2z. The energy density of this bath obeys the StefanBoltzmann law pdS proportional to h4. We comment on how these results clarify the thermodynamics of de Sitter space and support previous arguments for its instability in the infrared. The cosmological implications are considered in an accompanying Letter.



Arguelles, C. A. et al, & Barenboim, G. (2023). Snowmass white paper: beyond the standard model effects on neutrino flavor. Eur. Phys. J. C, 83(1), 15–57pp.
Abstract: Neutrinos are one of the most promising messengers for signals of new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). On the theoretical side, their elusive nature, combined with their unknown mass mechanism, seems to indicate that the neutrino sector is indeed opening a window to new physics. On the experimental side, several longstanding anomalies have been reported in the past decades, providing a strong motivation to thoroughly test the standard threeneutrino oscillation paradigm. In this Snowmass21 white paper, we explore the potential of current and future neutrino experiments to explore BSM effects on neutrino flavor during the next decade.



Barenboim, G. (2022). Some Aspects About Pushing the CPT and Lorentz Invariance Frontier With Neutrinos. Front. Physics, 10, 813753–7pp.
Abstract: The CPT symmetry, which combines Charge Conjugation, Parity, and Time Reversal, is a cornerstone of our modelbuilding method, and its probable violation will endanger the most extended tool we presently utilize to explain physics, namely local relativistic quantum fields. However, the kaon system's conservation constraints appear to be rather severe. We will show in this paper that neutrino oscillation experiments can enhance this limit by many orders of magnitude, making them an excellent instrument for investigating the basis of our understanding of Nature. As a result, verifying CPT invariance does not evaluate a specific model, but rather the entire paradigm. Therefore, as the CPT's status in the neutrino sector, linked or not to Lorentz invariance violation, will be assessed at an unprecedented level by current and future long baseline experiments, distinguishing it from comparable experimental fingerprints coming from nonstandard interactions is critical. Whether the entire paradigm or simply the conventional model of neutrinos is at jeopardy is significantly dependent on this.



Barenboim, G. (2010). Gravity triggered neutrino condensates. Phys. Rev. D, 82(9), 093014–13pp.
Abstract: In this work we use the SchwingerDyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a righthanded neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the righthanded neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.



Barenboim, G., Bernabeu, J., Mitsou, V. A., Romero Adam, E., & Vives, O. (2016). METing SUSY on the Z peak. Eur. Phys. J. C, 76(2), 57–13pp.
Abstract: Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 sigma excess at the Zpeak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, ET(miss) > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 +/ 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Zpeak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m((g) over bar) less than or similar to 1.2 TeV, together with a heavy neutralino NLSP of m((chi) over bar) greater than or similar to 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Zboson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Zboson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Zboson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out.



Barenboim, G., Blinov, N., & Stebbins, A. (2021). Smallest remnants of early matter domination. J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys., 12(12), 026–50pp.
Abstract: The evolution of the universe prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis could have gone through a phase of early matter domination which enhanced the growth of smallscale dark matter structure. If this period was long enough, selfgravitating objects formed prior to reheating. We study the evolution of these dense early halos through reheating. At the end of early matter domination, the early halos undergo rapid expansion and eventually eject their matter. We find that this process washes out structure on scales much larger than naively expected from the size of the original halos. We compute the density profiles of the early halo remnants and use them to construct latetime power spectra that include these nonlinear effects. We evolve the resulting power spectrum to estimate the properties of microhalos that would form after matterradiation equality. Surprisingly, cosmologies with a short period of early matter domination lead to an earlier onset of microhalo formation compared to those with a long period. In either case, dark matter structure formation begins much earlier than in the standard cosmology, with most dark matter bound in microhalos in the late universe.



Barenboim, G., & Bosch, C. (2016). Composite states of two righthanded neutrinos. Phys. Rev. D, 94(11), 116019–10pp.
Abstract: In this work, we develop a model for Higgslike composites based on two generations of righthanded neutrinos that condense. We analyze the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the theory with two explicit breakings, setting the different scales of the model and obtaining massive bosons as a result. Finally, we calculate the gravitational wave imprint left by the phase transition associated with the symmetry breaking of a generic potential dictated by the symmetries of the composites.



Barenboim, G., Bosch, C., Lee, J. S., LopezIbañez, M. L., & Vives, O. (2015). Flavorchanging Higgs boson decays into bottom and strange quarks in supersymmetric models. Phys. Rev. D, 92(9), 095017–15pp.
Abstract: In this work, we explore the flavorchanging decays Hi > bs in a general supersymmetric scenario. In these models the flavorchanging decays arise at loop level, butbecause they originate from a dimensionfour operatorthey do not decouple and may provide a first sign of new physics for heavy masses beyond the reach of colliders. In the framework of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, we find that the largest branching ratio of the lightest Higgs (H1) is O(10(6)) after imposing present experimental constraints, while heavy Higgs states may still present branching ratios O(10(3)). In a more general supersymmetric scenario, where additional Higgs states may modify the Higgs mixings, the branching ratio BR(H1 > bs) can reach values O(10(4)), while heavy Higgses still remain at O(10(3)). Although these values are clearly out of reach for the LHC, a full study in a linear collider environment could be worth pursuing.



Barenboim, G., Bosch, C., LopezIbañez, M. L., & Vives, O. (2014). Improved taulepton tools for Higgs boson hunting. Phys. Rev. D, 90(1), 015003–14pp.
Abstract: In this work, we use the results from Higgs searches in the gamma gamma and tau tau decay channels at LHC and indirect bounds as BR (B > Xs gamma) to constrain the parameter space of a generic minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) Higgs sector. In particular, we include the latest CMS results that look for additional Higgs states with masses up to 1 TeV. We show that the tau tau channel is the best and most accurate tool in the hunt for new Higgs states beyond the standard model. We obtain that present experimental results rule out additional neutral Higgs bosons in a generic MSSM below 300 GeV for any value of tan beta and, for instance, values of tan beta above 30 are only possible for Higgs masses above 600 GeV. ATLAS stored data have the potential to render this bound obsolete in the near future.



Barenboim, G., Bosch, C., LopezIbañez, M. L., & Vives, O. (2013). Eviction of a 125 GeV “heavy”Higgs from the MSSM. J. High Energy Phys., 11(11), 051–39pp.
Abstract: We prove that the present experimental constraints are already enough to rule out the possibility of the similar to 125 GeV Higgs found at LHC being the second lightest Higgs in a general MSSM context, even with explicit CP violation in the Higgs potential. Contrary to previous studies, we are able to eliminate this possibility analytically, using simple expressions for a relatively small number of observables. We show that the present LHC constraints on the diphoton signal strength, tau tau production through Higgs and BR(B > Xs gamma) are enough to preclude the possibility of H2 being the observed Higgs with m(H) similar or equal to 125 GeV within an MSSM context, without leaving room for finely tuned cancellations. As a byproduct, we also comment on the difficulties of an MSSM interpretation of the excess in the gamma gamma production cross section recently found at CMS that could correspond to a second Higgs resonance at m(H) similar or equal to 136 GeV.

